IMO - IGC CODE, LH2 SHIP CONSTRUCTION

 

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The International Code of the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk (IGC Code), adopted by resolution MSC.5(48), has been mandatory under SOLAS chapter VII since 1 July 1986. The IGC Code applies to ships regardless of their size, including those of less than 500 gross tonnage, engaged in carriage of liquefied gases having a vapour pressure exceeding 2.8 bar absolute at a temperature of 37.8C, and certain other substances listed in chapter 19 of the Code.

 

The Code does not apply to ships carrying liquefied hydrogen, that are not engaged in commercial carrying.

 

The aim of the Code is to provide an international standard for the safe carriage by sea in bulk of liquefied gases and the substances listed in chapter 19, by prescribing the design and construction standards of ships involved in such carriage and the equipment they should carry so as to minimize the risk to the ship, to its crew and to the environment, having regard to the nature of the products involved. 

 

 

 

 

 

Classification evolves slowly as a trailing edge to innovation and technological advancement. Climate change and air pollution is now pushing the barriers at a pace that is uncomfortable for the IMO and certifying societies, with the IMO re-writing the rules as Approvals in Principle are given to hydrogen vessels, following in the wake of cryogenic LNG, that never quite got a hold on the market, before it was time to up the MARPOL game, to combat anthropogenic warming of the planet.

 

 

 

The basic philosophy is one of ship types related to the hazards of the products covered by these codes, each of which may have one or more hazard properties. A further possible hazard may arise owing to the products being transported under cryogenic (refrigerated) or pressure conditions. 

Severe collisions or strandings could lead to cargo tank damage and uncontrolled release of the product. Such release could result in evaporation and dispersion of the product and, in some cases, could cause brittle fracture of the ship's hull. The requirements in the codes are intended to minimize these risks as far as is practicable, based upon present knowledge and technology. 

Throughout the development of the Code it was recognized that it must be based upon sound naval architectural and engineering principles and the best understanding available as to the hazards of the various products covered; furthermore that gas carrier design technology is not only a complex technology but is rapidly evolving and that the Code should not remain static. Therefore, IGC Code is kept under review, taking into account experience and technological development. The latest comprehensive amendments of the IGC Code were adopted by resolution MSC.370(93), expected to enter into force on 1 July 2016.

 

See also, Interim Recommendations for Carriage of Liquefied Hydrogen in Bulk.

 

 

COMPARISON OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF HYDROGEN AND METHANE

 

 

-

HYDROGEN

METHANE

REFERENCES

-

-

-

-

Boiling temperature (K)* 

20.3

 

111.6

 

ISO1), Annex A, Table A.3 

Liquid density (kg/m3)*

70.8

422.5

 

ISO1), Annex A, Table A.3

Gas density (kg/m3)** (Air: 1.198)

0.084

 

0.668

 

NIST RefProp 10)

Viscosity (g/cms x 10-6) Gas Liquid

8.8

13.49

 

10.91

116.79

 

NIST RefProp 10)

NIST RefProp 10)

Flame temperature in air (C)

2396

 

2230

 

Calculated using Cantera 
and GRI 3.0 mechanism

Maximum burning velocity (m/s) 

3.15

 

0.385

 

Calculated using Cantera 
and GRI 3.0 mechanism

Heat of vapourization (J/g)* 

448.7

 

510.4

 

ISO 1), Annex A, Table A.3 

Lower flammability limit (% vol. fraction)*** 

4.0

 

5.3

 

ISO 1), Annex A, Table B.2 

Upper flammability limit (% vol. fraction)***

75.0

 

17.0

 

ISO 1), Annex A, Table B.2 

Lower detonation limit (%vol. fraction)***

18.3

 

6.3

 

ISO 1), Annex A, Table B.2 

Upper detonation limit (% vol. 
fraction) *** 

59.0

 

13.5

 

ISO 1), Annex A, Table B.2

Minimum ignition energy (mJ)***

0.017

 

0.274

 

ISO 1), Annex A, Table B.2 

Auto-ignition temp. (C)***

585

 

537

 

ISO 1), Annex A, Table B.2

Toxicity

Non

 

Non

 

Orange book 5)

Temperature at critical point (K)

33.19****

 

190.55

 

Hydrogen: ISO 1), Annex A, 
Table A.1 Methane: The Japan 
Society of Mechanical 
Engineers, Data Book, 
Thermophysical 
Properties of Fluids (1983) 

Pressure at critical point (kPaA)

1297****

 

4595

 

Hydrogen: ISO 1), Annex A, 
Table A.1 Methane: The Japan 
Society of Mechanical 
Engineers, Data Book, 
Thermophysical 
Properties of Fluids (1983)

 

 

Remarks: 

 

* At their normal boiling points for comparison purpose. 

** At normal temperature and pressure. 

*** Ignition and combustion properties for air mixtures at 25C and 101.3 kPaA. 

**** Normal Hydrogen. 

 

 

 

REFERENCES

.

 

 

ISO LNG cryogenic container, liquid natural gas    20 cubic meter ISO cryogenic tank

 

 

STANDARD ISO - 20m3 cryogenic tanks, multi-layered vacuum insulation, in stainless steel. Large tanks are available from many manufacturers concerning LNG.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Elizabeth Swann

 

 

ZEWT ALORS - The solar and wind powered 'Elizabeth Swann' will feature solar collectors energy harvesting apparatus. Her hull configuration is ideal to incorporate mass hydrogen storage tanks, offering ranges of up to 4,000nm on compressed gas, or an extended range on liquid hydrogen tanks (optionally) as a drop in cartridge, or safety module.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A-Z INDEX OF H2 POWERED FUEL CELL SHIPS

BOREAL SJO

FCS ALTERWASSER

HYSEAS III

NORLED

SAN FRANCISCO BAY

SANDIA & DNV-GL

SCANDLINES

VIKING LINE

 

 

LIQUID HYDROGEN LINKS & REFERENCE

 

https://puc.overheid.nl/nsi/doc/PUC_2389_14/7/

https://wwwcdn.imo.org/localresources/en/KnowledgeCentre/IndexofIMOResolutions/MSCResolutions/MSC.420(97).pdf

 

 

 

 

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