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The Autonomous AI solar and wind powered ship Elizabeth Swann



PLASTIC FREE SHIP - In the quest for zero pollution shipping, this design takes a lot of beating. We have a zero single use plastic policy, backed by a recycling pledge, typically by pyrolysis technology. But, prefer to source products free of plastic at the outset. 





Many metals can be recycled over and over again, such as aluminium and steel. But they are not a renewable resource. Meaning that they cannot be naturally replaced. Typically, nonrenewable resources are found in the ground, such as rocks, fossil fuels and minerals. Once they are depleted, they are gone forever. Timber, is a good example of a construction material that is a renewable resource. But when oak trees were used to build the galleons of old, whole countries had their forests depleted. Including the UK. That was in the days before responsibly managed replanting schemes.


High value, and infinitely recyclable aluminum is a material tailor-made for a more circular and sustainable economy. Provided that we learn how to better recover the metal from used objects, such as soft drink cans, aluminum windows and vehicle engine parts. 5083 marine grade alloy, does not corrode in seawater. Boats and ships made of this material will have a very long service life - and may then be recycled. In volume, copper is the third most recycled metal after iron and aluminium.










5083 aluminium alloy is an aluminium alloy with magnesium and traces of manganese and chromium. It is highly resistant to attack by seawater and industrial chemicals.

Alloy 5083 retains exceptional strength after welding. It has the highest strength of the non-heat treatable alloys with an Ultimate Tensile Strength of 317 MPa or 46000 psi and a Tensile Yield Strength of 228 MPa or 33000 psi. It is not recommended for use in temperatures in excess of 65 °C.

A “saltwater” marine vessel should be made from 5083 H116 High Tensile. This is a Mill spec and is required on all military, rescue and survey vessels, it is considerably more expensive to buy. It has the highest corrosion resistance factor, is the most hard and non flexing, with an incredible sheer factor. Contrary to popular belief it is not 100% aluminum, it is an Alloy made up from different elements specifically for the marine environment.

5083 also has excellent weldability. According to ESAB (a major manufacturer of welding equipments), compared to the respective base alloy, the as-welded 5083 alloy loses only 7% of its tensile strength, while welded 5052 is between 19% to 36% weaker. Heat treatable alloys such as 6061, can have a loss of strength of around 80% near welds.


The composition of 5083 aluminium is:

Aluminium: balance
Chromium: 0.05-0.25% max
Copper: 0.1% max
Iron: 0.4% max
Magnesium: 4.0 to 4.9%
Manganese: 0.4 to 1.0%
Silicon: 0.4% max
Titanium: 0.15% max
Zinc: 0.25% max








Sometimes, solutions are staring us in the face. Remember our old chum John Harrison, with his marine chronometer, and the Board of Longitude, who could not see the wood for the trees. They were literally holding the solution in their hands, but refused to accept it.


Aluminium alloys used in shipbuilding are easier to recycle than cans recovered from domestic waste. They are thus a preferred marine construction material, as with steel, for building larger ships. Both being relatively harmless to the marine environment, even in a total loss situation.







It's a common sight, that everyone takes for granted, without realising the implications. Today, even fishing workboats are now made of GRP, when they used to be steel. Aluminium doesn't get so much of a look in, where it is more expensive. If these abandoned boats had been made of wood or alloy, they would have been recovered for recycling. GRP boats should be tagged, with an end of life cost for responsible disposal. Illegal disposal, by deliberate sinking, would have to carry hefty fines, to cover the cost of salvage and responsible disposal.





As per the 'European Green Deal,' (that does not support us) we aim to inspire stakeholders throughout the value chain to work together to boost recycling rates, such as introducing or further optimising separate collection schemes - and raising public awareness about the need to recycle metals.

The recycling rate of steel for packaging in Europe has continued to grow, reaching a new record of 84% in 2019.

The European Green Deal, as part of their Circular Economy Action Plan and the review of the Packaging and Packaging Waste Directive, aims to change the packaging landscape significantly. In keeping with recent legislative evolutions, and with the objective of keeping materials in the circular loop for as long as possible, issued a report “Why steel recycles forever – How to collect, sort and recycle steel for packaging”, focusing on best practices in four key areas:

▲ Optimised separate collection
▲ Collection and sorting of steel closures
▲ Scrap quality standards
▲ Design for recycling.

In line with a bold vision of “zero steel packaging to landfill by 2025”, APEAL believes more can be done to boost both the quantity and the quality of steel to recycling, and that all stakeholders have a meaningful role to play in the drive for a more circular economy in Europe.

APEAL is the Association of European Producers of Steel for Packaging. Founded in 1986, today APEAL unites the six
producers of steel for packaging in Europe – Acciaierie d’Italia, ArcelorMittal, Liberty Liège-Dudelange, Tata Steel, thyssenkrupp Rasselstein and U.S. Steel Košice.






    European Commission assessors giving grants to favoured developers



[LEFT] TURBINIA - Parsons' ship turned up unannounced at the Navy Review for Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee at Spithead, on 26 June 1897, in front of the Prince of Wales, Lords of the Admiralty and foreign dignitaries. As an audacious publicity stunt, Turbinia, which was much faster than any ship at the time, raced between the two lines of navy ships and steamed up and down in front of the crowd and Princes, while easily evading a Navy picket boat that tried to pursue her, almost swamping it with her wake. The first turbine-powered merchant vessel, the Clyde steamer 'TS King Edward,' followed in 1901. The Admiralty confirmed in 1905 that all future Royal Navy vessels were to be turbine-powered, and in 1906 the first turbine-powered battleship, the revolutionary 'HMS Dreadnought,' was launched. Now imagine a hydrogen powered ship, outperforming a diesel bunkered vessel is such an audacious display.



[RIGHT] MARINE CHRONOMETER - The Board of Longitude, famously, charged with finding a solution to the navigation problem, failed to recognize when they had found what they were looking for. This is a frequent problem for experts who only want to receive solutions that fit within their understanding of current knowledge - not accepting anything that does not conform. They would rather deny a solution. Some more practical sailors thought otherwise, gratefully accepting John Harrison's timepieces as essential navigation aids. This included the Royal Navy's Captain James Cook (HMS Endeavour, Discovery & Resolution) and Captain Robert Fitzroy (HMS Beagle) 1763-1779. Modern day 'Board's of Longitude,' are seen in technology grant decision makers all over the world. They fight shy of presented solutions, they want alternative solutions. It keeps them searching for their Unicorns and creates new knowledge. Such policies are though climate unfriendly in a race against time. A climate friendly policy is one that gets results more quickly and with the minimum of administration, such that the Harisson's and Ericsson's of today might surface sooner. Regardless, we keep on and on issuing calls for proposals, that extends the time to a solution that we can ill afford. Better, perhaps, to support the bird in the hand. If development takes longer and costs more, that extra money also equals a bigger carbon footprint, in the form of the taxpayer who earned the money for the grant-maker's to spend.






The U.S. produces more recycled aluminum than any single country other than China. Increasing aluminum recycling translates to less energy used and a lower carbon impact. For example, in the aluminum beverage can market, each percentage increase in the end-of-life recycling rate reduces the carbon intensity of aluminum beverage can production by 1.02 kg CO2 equivalent per 1,000 cans.

Most of all, aluminum cans are recycled over and over again in a true "closed loop" recycling process. Glass and plastic are typically "down-cycled" into products like carpet fiber or landfill liner.







Elizabeth Swann



ZEWT ALORS - The solar and wind powered 'Elizabeth Swann' will feature solar collectors and wind energy harvesting apparatus in an advanced configuration. Her hull configuration is ideal for mass hydrogen storage tanks, offering ranges of up to 4,000nm.








Aluminum is one of the most recycled - and recyclable - materials in use today. A recycled aluminum beverage can, car door or window frame is often recycled directly back into itself. And this process can happen virtually infinitely. 


Brazil recycles 98.2% of its aluminium can production, equivalent to 14.7 billion beverage cans per year, ranking first in the world, more than Japan's 82.5% recovery rate. Brazil has topped the aluminium can recycling charts eight years in a row. The recycling rate for aluminium beverage cans in the European Union, United Kingdom, Switzerland, Norway and Iceland stands at 73%.

The common myth in the construction world is that aluminium is not environmentally friendly, however with such a heavy focus on the environment in recent years there is now extensive research to show otherwise.

For example, there has been 1 billion tons of aluminium produced over the last 100 years, of which a huge 75% of remains in use today.

A joint campaign by European Aluminium and Metal Packaging Europe aims to achieve 100% regional can recycling rates by 2030.

Norway, has already got close thanks to a pioneering deposit return system (DRS) and a ban on multi-material packaging. It collects over 90% of cans through DRS and another 6% through sorting of household waste, according to Kjell Olav Maldum from Norwegian deposit return system INFINITUM.











The aluminium can is the poster child for recyclability dating back to those first Coors’ two-piece cans. When Coors introduced the first all-aluminium beverage can in 1959, it offered one cent on every can returned.

But after decades of telling the public to not throw them away, around a quarter of Europeans are still doing exactly that and a lot more in some countries such as Portugal, where the recycling rate was just 43% in 2018.

The metal loss is higher in the United States, where the Aluminum Institute estimates a 2019 industry can recycling rate of 55.9% and a consumer recycling rate of 46.1%, both down on 2018 levels.

The International Aluminium Institute (IAI) reckons that globally 1.2 million tonnes of aluminium in the form of used beverage cans and other rigid packaging was not collected at end of life in 2018.

That’s more than the United States’ annual primary aluminium production.








The power-intensive smelting process means that aluminium accounts for around 2% of all global greenhouse gas emissions with much variability depending on energy source.

A path to net zero carbon is going to be challenging, particularly given the fact that China, the world’s largest producer, is heavily dependent on coal for its aluminium production.


- Recycling is a critical part of the modern aluminum business. Making recycled aluminum only takes around 5% of the energy needed to make new aluminum — reducing carbon emissions and saving money for businesses and end consumers.


As a result, nearly 75% of all aluminum ever produced is still in use today.


In most industrial markets like automotive and building, recycling rates for aluminum exceed 90%. 


Industry recycling efforts in the U.S. save more than 90 million barrels of oil equivalent each year.

The U.S. collects more than twice the amount of aluminum today for recycling than it did in the 1980s. And while recycling rates in most industrial markets exceed 90%, more can be achieved — particularly when it comes to aluminum beverage cans.

While aluminum cans are recycled at far higher rates than glass or plastic, these rates have fallen below 50% in recent years. That means more than $800 million worth of aluminum ends up in a landfill — a tremendous loss to the economy and the environment. 

















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