Grayling and Nus Ghani
Nusrat Ghani MP Parliamentary Under Secretary of State DfT:
I am today (11 July 2019) announcing the publication of the clean maritime plan, the UK’s route map to clean growth for the maritime sector and pathway to
zero-emission shipping. The UK has one of the world’s proudest and most innovative maritime heritages. In January 2019, government launched Maritime 2050, a landmark strategy setting out our vision for the future of the British maritime sector. The Clean maritime plan is the environment route map of Maritime 2050. It identifies ways to tackle air pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions in parallel while securing clean growth opportunities for the UK. A cleaner shipping industry will help make the air we breathe cleaner and safer, and create a healthy environment for the future.
It builds on the role the UK played as a leading voice in advocating for an ambitious global target to reduce greenhouse gases from shipping. The initial greenhouse strategy agreed by the International Maritime Organization in 2018, set a target to reduce
GHGs from international shipping by at least 50% by 2050 and to phase them out completely as soon as possible in this century. By publishing the clean maritime plan, the UK becomes one of the first countries since the agreement of this initial strategy to publish a national action plan. The plan is also the first cohesive national strategy to reduce domestic shipping emissions, as part of our journey to meeting net zero.
A global transition to clean shipping is taking place, presenting significant opportunities for economic growth. Research undertaken for the government suggests the global market for maritime emission reduction technologies could reach £11 billion per year by 2050, potentially resulting in economic benefits to the UK of £510 million per year.
To capitalise on this economic opportunity and achieve zero-emission shipping, the clean maritime plan makes the following core commitments:
• a call for evidence in 2020 on non-tax incentives to support the transition to zero emission shipping, as well as a consultation on how the Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation could be used to encourage the uptake of low carbon fuels in maritime, and a green finance initiative for maritime, which will be launched at London International Shipping Week in September
a working group and study to identify and support potential UK zero-emission
government support for clean maritime innovation in the UK:
- funding of £1.3 million to support clean maritime innovation through MarRI-UK
grant support for early stage research projects related to clean maritime
and a clean maritime award to celebrate leaders in the field of emissions reduction
a Maritime Emissions Regulation Advisory Service (MERAS), in place by 2020, to provide dedicated support to innovators using
The plan also contains a number of
zero-emission shipping ambitions, outlining the government’s vision for the future of
zero-emission shipping and the milestones that will need to be achieved to reach it.
This plan has been achieved through close cooperation between industry and government. The Clean Maritime Council, an advisory body of key stakeholders from across the maritime sector, academia and government, worked alongside government to develop the strategy, and will continue to work with us to implement the commitments. A full review of the clean maritime plan’s implementation will take place in 2022.
The world’s proudest maritime
heritage, as a global leader for the 21st century
1. In January 2019 the government published
Maritime 2050 , a strategic vision for the future of the maritime sector building on
the earlier 2015 Maritime Growth Study , outlining ambitious recommendations
to take the UK maritime industry into the second half of the 21st century.
Underpinning the Maritime 2050 strategy are 10 core strategic ambitions, covering
a range of topics from competitiveness to technology. These include the intention
that the UK ‘lead the way in taking action on clean maritime growth, enjoying
economic benefits from being an early adopter or fast mover.’
2. Building on this strategic ambition, Maritime
2050 sets a vision for clean maritime in the UK as follows:
In 2050, zero emission ships are commonplace globally. The UK has taken a proactive role in driving the transition to
zero emission shipping in UK waters and is seen globally as a role model in this field,
moving faster than other countries and faster than international standards. As a
result, the UK has successfully captured a significant share of the economic,
environmental and health benefits associated with this transition.
3. The Clean Maritime Plan is the Environment
Route Map of Maritime 2050, setting out in more detail how Government sees the
UK’s transition to a future of zero emission shipping . It encompasses the maritime
commitments within the Clean Air Strategy  to ensure that the sector takes the steps
necessary to protect human health and the environment from air quality pollutants.
At the same time, it recognises the need for all countries to take action to address
emissions of greenhouse gases, in line with the Paris Agreement and its temperature
goals . In 2018 the UK was a leading voice in the agreement of the Initial IMO Strategy
on the Reduction of GHG from Ships (‘the IMO GHG Strategy’) .
commits the maritime sector globally to reducing emissions of GHGs from shipping
by at least 50% by 2050 compared to 2008, while pursuing efforts to phase them
out. While the UK continues to believe that global action is the most effective way to
achieve these ambitions, it also recognises the role that national action can play in
leading the transition to zero emission shipping. In this context, the Clean Maritime
Plan represents the UK’s National Action Plan on shipping emissions.
4. But above all, the Clean Maritime Plan is
about opportunity. For example, research commissioned by the Government estimates that the economic benefits to
the UK across 11 key maritime emission reduction options could reach $650-890 million per year by the middle of the
century . In line with the Government’s vision for sustainable economic growth as
set out in the Clean Growth Strategy  and Industrial Strategy , the Clean Maritime
Plan seeks to support the innovation already present in British manufacturing,
technology, fuel production and services, encouraging the translation of this expertise
to the potential new clean maritime market.
5. In order to realise the full potential of this
clean growth opportunity a collaborative approach from industry and Government
is vital. The Clean Maritime Plan has been developed in close partnership with the
maritime industry. This has included an extensive programme of stakeholder
engagement, including the establishment of a Clean Maritime Council, alongside
workshops and ongoing dialogue. The Council is a strategic advisory body, bringing
together leading figures from the maritime industry, academia and
Government . The Clean Maritime Plan has also been informed by a programme of economic and technical
research, available online .
6. This process of consultation and research
has indicated that we are on the cusp of a global transition to zero emission
shipping. To reach significant reductions of greenhouse gases and air quality pollutants,
energy efficiency technologies will not be sufficient. Low or zero-emission fuels and
propulsion technologies will be necessary. Many other countries are demonstrating
a keen interest in the development and implementation of such green shipping
innovations and are moving swiftly to demonstrate leadership in this field.
Maritime 2050 sets out the UK’s ambition on this front, while the Clean
Maritime Plan sets out a route map for domestic action to respond to this opportunity. It will help
ensure that the UK builds on its unique maritime heritage to remain a world leading
Clean Maritime Plan Ambitions
7. It is Government’s intention to support a high
level of ambition on emissions reduction, providing enough direction to give investment
certainty while allowing industry the space to innovate. To assist in providing this certainty,
and in line with the recommendations set out in Maritime 2050, we have set out
Clean Maritime Plan Ambitions for the UK maritime sector. A significant increase in
technology commercialisation and uptake will be necessary by 2025 and 2035 to make
it possible to reach zero emission shipping by the latter half of the century. As such,
ambitions are articulated for each of these dates, highlighting the expected direction
8. These zero emissions shipping ambitions
are intended to provide aspirational goals for the sector, not mandatory targets.
They can only be achieved through collaboration between Government and industry,
promoting the zero emission pathways that maximise the economic opportunities
for the UK economy while also minimising costs for UK shipping.
9. In Maritime 2050, the Government
set out its vision for the future of zero emission shipping:
“In 2050, zero emission ships are
commonplace globally. The UK has taken a proactive role in driving the transition to zero
emission shipping in UK waters and is seen globally as a role model in this field, moving faster
than other countries and faster than international standards. As a result,
the UK has successfully captured a significant share of the economic, environmental and health benefits
associated with this transition.”
10. In order to reach this vision By 2025 we expect that:
i. All vessels operating in UK waters
are maximising the use of energy efficiency options. All new vessels being ordered for use
in UK waters are being designed with zero emission propulsion capability. Zero
emission commercial vessels are in operation in UK waters.
ii. The UK is building clean
maritime clusters focused on innovation and infrastructure associated with zero
emission propulsion technologies, including bunkering of low or zero emission fuel.
iii. The UK has built a number of clean maritime clusters. These combine
infrastructure and innovation for the use of zero emission propulsion technologies. Low or zero emission
marine fuel bunkering options are readily available across the UK.
iv. The UK Ship Register is known as a
global leader in clean shipping and the UK is home to a world-leading zero emissions maritime sector,
a. a strong UK export industry
b. cutting-edge research and development activities
c. the global centre for investment, insurance and legal services related to clean maritime growth.
Clean Maritime Plan Commitments
11. The following are the Government’s key
policy commitments from the Clean Maritime Plan. These aim to support the
sector as it moves towards the vision set out in Maritime 2050, and the Clean
Maritime Plan Ambitions.
1. Government will launch a call for evidence in 2020 on non-tax incentives to support the transition to
zero emission shipping.
2. Government will consult in 2020 on
how the Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation could be used to encourage the uptake of low carbon fuels in
3. Government will launch a ‘Greening
Finance/Financing Green’ for Maritime Initiative at London International
Shipping Week 2019.
4. In conjunction with a working group
as part of the Clean Maritime Council, Government will undertake a study to
identify and support potential UK zero emission shipping clusters.
5. Government will support clean
maritime innovation in the UK, beginning with:
●● Providing seed funding to contribute to the establishment of MarRI-UK;
●● Funding a competition for innovation in clean maritime in 2019;
●● Launching a round of Government grant support for early stage research projects related to clean
●● Establishing a Clean Maritime Award to celebrate leaders in the field of
6. The Government will establish the
Maritime Emissions Regulation Advisory Service (MERAS) by 2020. Supported by the Maritime
and Coastguard Agency, MERAS will provide dedicated support to innovators using zero emission
propulsion technologies, assisting them through the regulatory process.
12. To help oversee the implementation of
these policy commitments in the short-term, the Clean Maritime Council will
continue as a strategic advisory body. The Government will publish a review of
implementation of the Clean Maritime Plan in 2022.
13. The Clean Maritime Plan sets out a national action plan to take UK maritime towards
the vision for zero emission shipping set out in Maritime 2050. This action plan is full of
opportunity but represents a challenge to all stakeholders in the maritime
sector, both public and private. Action will be necessary from Government, industry and the
academic sector. But the potential rewards are substantial. The UK has a rich maritime
heritage, and we have the opportunity now to turn that wealth of history and
experience towards real global leadership in a vast new market. Government is
committed to working with the maritime sector to make that vision a reality.
SECTION 2 - OUR APPROACH
51. Work to develop the Clean Maritime Plan began in March 2018, with a public
consultation on the Maritime 2050 strategy. Published in January 2019, Maritime 2050 is the Government’s vision
for the future of the Maritime sector . The strategy’s ambitions are focused into
seven themes, highlighting how every part of the maritime sector has a role to play
in securing a strong future. Environment is a key theme of Maritime 2050, and is
broken down into four sub-themes: Zero Emissions Shipping; Minimising Wider
Environmental Impacts from Shipping; Adapting to Climate Change, and the
continuing role of International Leadership. The Clean Maritime Plan is a route-map of
the Maritime 2050 strategy, focused on the issue of Zero Emissions Shipping,
exploring how the UK can address emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants from
shipping in parallel.
52. The Clean Air Strategy, published in
January 2019, sets out the Government’s plans to address air pollution across the
UK, setting out the comprehensive actions needed across all parts of government and
society to improve air quality . The strategy
contains three significant commitments for the maritime sector, to be published in
2019, in line with the Clean Maritime Plan:
● A Call for Evidence to explore the
emissions from vessels operating domestically within the UK, including inland waterways. The
aim of this work is to collect a body of evidence that will give a clearer picture of the extent
of emissions from domestic and inland
● A consultation on options for extending the North Sea Emissions Control
Area beyond its current geographical limits or options to establish further,
geographically discrete Emissions Control Area’s in UK waters. These options will aim to extend limits on SOx
and NOx emissions provided under international law in order to contribute to
improving air quality in the UK.
● Guidelines to advise ports on how
to develop effective and targeted Air Quality Plans. These Plans will set out commitments by
individual ports to reduce emissions from their operations and to support the reduction
of emissions from their customers. Following publication on these guidelines, ports within scope will be
asked to make initial commitments by 31 December 2019 and to produce their
plans in June 2020.
53. The Clean Air Strategy also includes
a further commitment to publish the Clean Maritime Plan, and to establish
a Clean Maritime Council. The Council was launched by Minister Nusrat Ghani
in October 201854. A strategic advisory body made up of industry representatives,
academics and key government departments, the Council has played a vital role in reviewing and developing the
Clean Maritime Plan. The Council formed three ‘Task and Finish Groups’, drawing
representation from beyond its core members. These ‘Task and Finish Groups’
were focused on the topics of Incentives, Standards and Regulations, and Energy
Systems Integration. The work of these three groups was fed back to the main
Council and presented at a large industry workshop held in March 2019. The Clean
Maritime Plan workshop was attended by over 85 key industry stakeholders, helping
ensure that the Plan brings in the varied views from across sector. To complement
this consultation, the Government also commissioned a package of economic and
technical research to provide a detailed evidence base for the Clean Maritime Plan.
This research is available online .
54. The following sections of the document
set out the key policy commitments of the Clean Maritime Plan in more detail. Based
on analysis of feedback from the Clean Maritime Council, policy is broken down
into four main areas:
55. Policy commitments are set out in
each area, alongside key elements of consultation feedback and relevant findings from
economic and technical research. Finally, there follows a mapping exercise highlighting the links between
the policy commitments of the Clean Maritime Plan and the recommendations
in Maritime 2050.
56. The policy commitments of the Clean
Maritime Plan will be implemented over the coming years, with advice from the Clean
Maritime Council, which may draw on wider stakeholder views. The Council will keep
oversight of progress against the policy commitments and ambitions.
57. The Government will publish a review of
implementation of the Clean Maritime Plan in 2022. At this stage, the operation of the
Clean Maritime Council will be reviewed.
58. While the Clean Maritime Plan deals
only with those Maritime 2050 recommendations relating to zero emission shipping, the
other environmental recommendations of Maritime 2050 are also of key importance. Progress
against these recommendations will be monitored through the wider Maritime
2050 reporting process. This Annual Report will also report on progress against
those recommendations of Maritime 2050 which fall outside the scope of the Clean
SECTION 3 - ECONOMICS
The Role of Targets
59. The Government’s Maritime 2050 Strategy contained the following commitments:
● Government will consider the merits of introducing a medium-term target
for emissions of GHGs and air quality pollutants from UK shipping. Further
detail on this consideration will be set out in the Clean Maritime Plan.
● Government will consider the
introduction of a target to reduce emissions of GHGs and air quality pollutants from UK shipping
towards zero. Further details on the government’s long-term plans to reduce emissions
from UK shipping, will be set out in the Clean Maritime Plan, taking into account
the IMO’s 2050 GHG target.
●● Government will work to ensure
maritime greenhouse gas emissions are appropriately taken into account in national and
international emission reporting. The government will carefully consider the CCC’s advice on the
inclusion of international shipping within carbon budgets. Further information on
the Government’s plans will be set out in the Clean Maritime Plan.
60. UK domestic policy relating to emissions of GHGs from the maritime sector is based
around the Climate Change Act 2008, which requires that the UK contributes to
global emission reductions by reducing UK GHG emissions by at least 80% of 1990
levels by 2050. In order to meet this target, the Government has set five-yearly carbon
budgets which currently run until 2032. These restrict the amount of GHGs the UK can legally emit in a five-year period.
61. At present, emissions from domestic shipping are included in both the existing carbon budgets and current 2050 target.
Although emissions from international shipping are not currently included in the UK’s targets under the Climate Change Act, our carbon budgets put the UK on
a trajectory consistent with a 2050 target which includes these emissions.
62. On 2 May 2019, the Committee on Climate Change published its report ‘Net Zero: The UK’s Contribution to Stopping Global Warming’. This recommended that the UK should legislate as soon as possible to reach net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. The Committee also advised that
this revised target should cover all sectors of the economy, including international shipping.
63. In June 2019, the UK became the first major economy to legislate for net zero
emissions, setting a target for 2050. Although emissions from international
shipping and aviation are not formally included within the legislation at this point,
it is essential that these sectors play their role. To ensure we are on the right
trajectory for net zero emissions across the economy, we will continue to
leave ‘headroom’ for international shipping and aviation emissions in our carbon budgets.
Since the 1997 Kyoto Agreement on climate change, international shipping and
aviation emissions have been dealt with via the IMO and ICAO respectively. This is
important given the global nature of these industries. Government continues to be
of the view that action to tackle emissions from these sectors must be done globally
to be effective. The UK will continue to take a leadership role at the IMO, pushing for
the most ambitious measures to deliver the vision, and emission reduction targets,
of the IMO GHG Strategy. The UK will continue to advocate strongly at the IMO
for the most ambitious measures to deliver the vision, and emission reduction targets,
of the IMO GHG Strategy. Government will keep our approach to the inclusion
of international shipping and aviation emissions in our legislation under review,
taking account of progress in the IMO and ICAO.
64. In relation to regulations for domestic shipping, following publication of Maritime 2050, Government has commissioned research which indicates that the introduction of targets for maritime emissions can act as a useful signal of the direction of emissions
policy . As well as raising public awareness, this research identified that targets can provide
additional certainty to firms (both in the maritime sector and related sectors) to inform their investment decisions, and contribute to addressing the barriers to reducing shipping emissions, such as “by encouraging owners to take a longer-term view of their assets and investments”.
65. The extent to which targets may bind market participants depends on the regulations which underpin them. However, it is clear that targets are necessary in order to support an effective domestic regulatory environment. Following stakeholder feedback during the development of the
Clean Maritime Plan, it was established that further consultation would be required to
determine the exact nature of any binding target. The section below on the role of
economic instruments sets out how such consultation may be taken forward.
66. In the absence of any mandatory targets, however, consultation to-date has indicated that the market may benefit from further policy certainty regarding the future fuel and technology mix required in a zero-emission world.
67. To assist in providing some clarity, the Government has commissioned
research  to investigate the likely take-up of technologies and alternative fuels, and
the associated costs, under a number of different future scenarios. This research
does not represent policy decisions. It seeks only to identify possible future
technology mixes in different scenarios under changing assumptions about policy
and the availability of alternative fuels. Nevertheless, certain conclusions can be
drawn from this research. In particular:
● Certain categories of vessel traffic are
estimated to be particularly significant contributors to UK shipping emissions.
For example, container vessel traffic is estimated to make the highest contribution to UK international shipping
GHG emissions, while ro-ro vessel traffic is estimated to be the highest
contributor to UK domestic shipping GHG emissions.
● In order to achieve the reductions
in GHGs required by the IMO GHG Strategy, it is estimated that energy efficiency improvements
alone will not be sufficient and that the use of alternative fuels (such as hydrogen, ammonia or
methanol) will be required.
● Under the assumptions made in the
research, ammonia is estimated to be more cost-effective than methanol or
hydrogen for most ship types. However, there is substantial uncertainty around
this result, so it is not possible to reach definitive conclusions on this at
present. In addition, under these assumptions, generation of hydrogen, methanol and
ammonia is estimated to be more cost effective using fossil fuels (with carbon
capture and storage) rather than via electrolysis
● LNG is not estimated to be a substantial
part of the fuel mix in the future (whether near future, around 2035, or longer-term,
around 2050) under any scenarios that achieve the reductions in GHGs required
by the IMO GHG Strategy
● Electricity is estimated to play a much
smaller role than that of alternative fuels, with electric propulsion take up limited
to vessels that operate short voyages, such as short ferry crossings. Whilst its
use is expected to be more significant for the UK domestic fleet than the UK
international fleet, it is still estimated to remain relatively small under all
scenarios. This conclusion is sensitive, however, to current cost assumptions,
such as regarding the capital cost of batteries.
● Whether or not shipping has access
to biofuels is not estimated to result in a significant difference in the costs
to business of delivering the reduction in GHGs required by the IMO GHG
68. This last point is relevant given the need to ensure, across the economy, the optimal
use of limited feedstocks of sustainable bioenergy supply. The most recent advice from Government’s independent advisory body, the Committee on Climate Change, suggests that the use of biofuels should be directed towards those sectors which faces the hardest challenges to abate
emissions . The extent to which biofuels may play a role in decarbonising the maritime sector will need to be considered carefully against the needs of these other sectors (such as aviation and heavy goods vehicles) to ensure cost-effective decarbonisation for the whole economy.
69. There are also important considerations regarding hydrogen, ammonia and
methanol as alternative fuels. Since none of these fuels are currently widely used for
marine propulsion, their uptake will require the development of both safety standards
and bunkering infrastructure. It should be
noted, however, that the maritime sector already has significant experience working
with each of these products, which are already shipped as cargo on a significant
global scale60 (18.8 million tonnes of ammonia was exported between 2015
and 2017, for use in the fertiliser industry, for instance ). As such, there already
exists global infrastructure and established standards for their handling, storage and
transport in bulk form.
70. The adoption of bioenergy or alternative fuels would also need to be done so as
to take account of potential air pollution impacts. Ammonia, in particular, is itself
an air pollutant, primarily emitted from the agricultural sector during the storage and
spreading of manures and slurries, as well as the application of inorganic
fertilisers . The Government has adopted a legally binding international emission reduction
target for ammonia. Unintentional releases of ammonia (through leaks or unburnt fuel)
would need to be managed, as would the NOx emissions generated by combustion.
The latter could be managed using SCR technologies, which are already applied
to marine engines in order to comply with
IMO Tier III requirements in designated NOx Emission Control Areas (e.g. the North Sea
71. Another important factor to inform Government policy on targets is consideration of how to maximise
the benefits for the UK economy from the transition to zero emissions shipping. Government has therefore
commissioned research to assess the UK’s competitiveness in 11 key maritime
emission reduction options . This research found that “there are significant economic
and commercial opportunities for the UK across all abatement options considered”,
with the UK having the (a) strong(est) competitive advantage in:
● Hydrogen production technologies;
● Ammonia production technologies;
● Onboard batteries; and
● Electric engines.
72. In addition to this, it is also recognised that the UK has particular strengths in the area
of maritime services.
73. Given technology and cost uncertainty at this stage, the need to encourage
investment in a range of technological solutions to the zero-emission shipping
challenge is evident. In order to support a high level of ambition on emissions
reduction, providing enough direction to give improved investment certainty while
allowing industry the space to innovate is vital. To assist in providing
this certainty, and in line with the recommendations set out in Maritime 2050, we set out the
following aspirational ambitions for the UK maritime sector.
74. These Clean Maritime Plan Ambitions are intended to provide aspirational goals for
the sector, not mandatory targets. They indicate Government’s expectation for the
direction of travel necessary if the goal of zero emissions is to be met throughout the
sector. Each of these ambitions can only be achieved through collaboration between
Government and industry. Mandatory targets will be considered further in relation
to economic instruments for zero emission shipping (see “The Role of Incentives”
below). The policy commitments identified in this document are intended to support
the UK maritime sector in moving to a trajectory for zero emission propulsion
uptake consistent with these ambitions. The review of the Clean Maritime Plan
published in 2022 will consider these ambitions, progress towards them and the
need for further policy commitments.
75. In Maritime 2050, the Government set out its vision for the future of zero
emission shipping: “In 2050, zero emission ships are commonplace globally. The UK has
taken a proactive role in driving the transition to zero emission shipping in
UK waters and is seen globally as a role model in this field, moving faster
than other countries and faster than international standards. As a result,
the UK has successfully captured a significant share of the economic, environmental and health benefits
associated with this transition.”
76. In order to reach this vision
By 2025 we expect that:
i. All vessels operating in UK waters
are maximising the use of energy efficiency options. All new vessels being ordered for use in UK
waters are being designed with zero emission propulsion capability. ii. Zero emission commercial vessels
are in operation in UK waters.
iii. The UK is building clean maritime
clusters focused on innovation and infrastructure associated with zero emission propulsion
technologies, including bunkering of low or zero emission fuel. By 2035 we expect that:
iv. The UK has built a number of clean
maritime clusters. These combine infrastructure and innovation for the use of zero emission
propulsion technologies. Low or zero emission marine fuel bunkering options are
readily available across the UK.
v. The UK Ship Register is known as a
global leader in clean shipping and the UK is home to a world-leading zero emissions
maritime sector, with:
a. a strong UK export industry
b. cutting-edge research and development activities
c. the global centre for investment, insurance and legal services related to clean maritime growth.
The Role of Incentives - Commitment
Government was to launch a call for evidence in 2020 on non-tax incentives to support the
transition to zero emission shipping. Government will consult in 2020 on how the
Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation could be used to encourage the uptake of low
carbon fuels in maritime.
77. The Government’s Maritime 2050 Strategy contained the following commitments:
● Government will assess how economic
instruments could support the transition to zero emission shipping in the medium
to long term.
● Government will consider whether and
how the Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO) could be used to encourage the
uptake of low carbon fuels in maritime, taking the availability of sustainable resources, competing uses
and the international character of the maritime sector into consideration.
78. Following publication of Maritime 2050, Government has commissioned research to
identify the key barriers to the commercial deployment of emission reduction
options64. This research identified that one of the key barriers is that the fuel prices do
not currently fully reflect the environmental costs (e.g. climate change) that result from
the use of these fuels. These environmental costs are known as ‘negative externalities’.
This reduces the relative cost-effectiveness of emission reductions options and hence
means that there is under investment in emission reduction options.
79. This conclusion has been confirmed by extensive consultation with industry,
academia and NGOs. At its first meeting, the Clean Maritime Council determined that
the economics of zero emission shipping represented a major barrier. The Council
established a sub-group, bringing in representatives from outside the permanent
Council members, to take forward discussion of economic incentives as a priority issue. The conclusions of this subgroup were discussed with stakeholders
at a full-day workshop on the 11th March, and attendees reaffirmed the conclusion
that pricing remained the priority barrier preventing the commercialisation of zero
80. While some market actors are proactive and responsible, going beyond regulatory
standards for environmental protection, ultimately ship owners, operators and
fuel infrastructure owners are commercial entities primarily driven by market pressures.
Although they do have commercial incentives to increase fuel efficiency
– and such efficiency measures can reduce emissions – this decision making does not
account for the full costs of their activities in relation to climate change, or damage to
human health from air pollutants.
81. To respond to the evidence of economic barriers preventing the further deployment
of zero emission shipping technologies and systems, the government will continue to
explore the case for economic instruments to support the transition to zero emissions
shipping, beginning with a consultation on the RTFO in 2020 and a Call for Evidence
on non-tax incentives.
82. In continuing to explore the case for economic instruments, we will consider all parts of the maritime sector, and take
into account the need to reduce emissions of both greenhouse gases and air quality
pollutants by a defined amount, thereby driving emissions toward a domestic
medium or long-term reduction target.
83. Government will also consider such factors as:
● The extent to which existing internationally-recognised data collection
and monitoring mechanisms can be used
● How to reduce administrative burden to both regulators and industry
● The need to avoid perverse incentives or unintended consequences
● The range of possible low- and zero emission shipping technologies and fuels
● Interactions with the UK flag and UK
84. Research commissioned by the Government  and consultation suggests
that the existing RTFO instrument may provide an opportunity to start to
strengthen the incentives for fuel suppliers to provide greater quantities of
fuel to the maritime sector.
85. This could be done either by placing an obligation on suppliers of marine fuel to
supply a certain percentage of sustainable low-emission fuel or by awarding renewable
transport fuel certificates (RTFCs) to suppliers of clean maritime fuel (or both).
86. Government’s work on domestic economic instruments will recognise the international nature of the shipping
industry and the need to be cognisant of impacts on UK competitiveness. Related
to this, Government will continue to play a leading role at the International Maritime
Organization (IMO) in advocating for globally-agreed measures to implement
the vision and targets of the IMO GHG Strategy. The UK will continue to advocate
for mid- and long-term measures which will ensure a global transition to zero
emission propulsion technologies, including new/ nnovative emission reduction mechanism(s)
to incentivise GHG emission reduction.
The Role of Green Finance
launched a ‘Greening Finance/Financing Green’ for Maritime Initiative at
London International Shipping Week 2019.
87. The Government’s Maritime 2050 Strategy contained the following commitments:
● Government will work in partnership with the British banking sector to encourage
the provision of finance towards zero emission shipping technology development and manufacturing.
88. The financial services sector is an important sector nationally. In research commissioned
by the Government66, the UK’s experience in maritime services, including finance,
insurance and legal services, has also been recognised as being beneficial to the
UK’s competitive position across several emission reduction options. However, at
present, low- and zero-emission shipping represents only a small part of business for
89. It has previously been recognised that widespread switching to zero emission
propulsion technologies would require significant investment by ship owners
alongside ports and bunker fuel suppliers, presenting both a large investment challenge
but also a significant opportunity for maritime service providers . As the global transition
to zero emission shipping gathers pace over the coming years, driven by increasing
international pressure to tackle emissions of greenhouse gases and air quality pollutants,
the UK could build on its existing position as a world leading financial centre to become
the global hub for the provision of green finance, insurance and legal services for the
clean maritime sector.
90. Maritime business services directly contribute £2 billion GVA to the UK
economy. When impacts on the wider economy are accounted for, including the
rest of the maritime sector, this rises to nearly £5 billion. The City of London is a
global leader in this area; the largest share of worldwide marine insurance premiums
and ship-broking transactions occur in the UK, comprising 35% and 26% of
the global market respectively. In a 2015 survey conducted by Norton Rose relating
to maritime financial services, 40% of respondents in the shipping sector reported
that London was the financial centre most able to meet their financing needs, with
other competitors ranked substantially lower (New York at 14%, Singapore at 7%,
Frankfurt at 6% and Hong Kong at 5%) [68. 69]
91. London has also been recognised by the UN Environment Programme as a key location in the landscape of green finance. It has been instrumental in the initial rise of carbon markets, and a leader in the integration of environmental, social and governance
factors into institutional investment. Four ‘waves’ of sustainable finance innovation have been recognised
as having taken place in the UK, moving from ethical investment, to mainstreaming
environmental factors into institutional investment, the surge of post-crisis reform, to a focus on climate risk70. The UK is now home to several schemes to drive green finance broadly, including the Green
Finance Initiative .
92. However, the direction of green finance and services to zero emission shipping,
as a nascent market, presents challenges. Consultation undertaken by Government
suggests that the number of financial products available specifically for low
emission shipping is relatively low, globally. It includes, for instance, German bank
KfW’s financing of multiple scrubber projects and the joint European Investment
Bank-ING green shipping facility. However, as a rule, the negative externalities
associated with zero emission shipping technologies mean that the return on
investment for many technologies is not currently sufficient to attract finance at
competitive rates. In addition, economic research to inform the Clean Maritime Plan
has highlighted that imperfect information
presents a significant barrier. There is currently a systemic lack of independent
information on the performance of energy efficiency technologies and alternative fuels,
leading to high uncertainty, and deterring investment.
93. Consultation has suggested that the definition of relevant standards for maritime
green finance which would help reduce these barriers. By providing a framework
for assessing and disclosing the climate alignment of ship finance portfolios, lenders
and financial guarantors would have a clearer case for supporting technologies
and businesses who may traditionally have been viewed as high-risk. The work in this
area of organisations such as the Climate Bonds Initiatives and the Global Maritime
Forum are likely to be useful examples.
94. In June 2019, The Poseidon Principles
were launched, a framework for assessing and disclosing the climate alignment of
ship finance portfolios. The principles are designed to align with the policies of the
IMO, including the 2018 greenhouse gas target.
Signatories commit to four key
● Assessment of climate alignment – that signatories will measure the carbon
intensity and alignment of their shipping portfolio annually.
● Accountability – signatories will reply
on classification societies or other IMO recognized organizations to assess and
report on climate alignment.
● Enforcement – covenant clauses will
be made contractual in new business activities to ensure access to high quality data.
● Transparency – signatories will publish
their climate alignment scores annually. Eleven global banks, jointly representing
approximately USD 100 billion in shipping finance, are the initial signatories.
95. To help further address some of these
barriers, and recognising the Government’s Green Finance Strategy, published in July
2019 and support independent action taken by industry, Government will launch
a ‘Greening Finance & Financing Green’ for Maritime information campaign at London
International Shipping Week to begin this work, promoting the UK as a centre
of expertise in zero emission maritime business services. This will have a dual
approach, both providing information to industry about zero emission funding
opportunities, while also promoting opportunities in clean maritime to potential investors.
SECTION 4 - INFRASTRUCTURE
Infrastructure for Zero Emission Shipping - Commitment In conjunction with a working group as part
of the Clean Maritime Council, Government will undertake a study to identify and support
potential UK zero emission shipping clusters.
96. The Government’s Maritime 2050 Strategy contained the following commitments:
● Government will work to better
understand the capacity of the UK’s energy networks to support an increase
in demand for green energy from our ports and shipping sectors. It will also
consider the role the maritime and offshore renewables sectors can play in
decentralised energy generation.
● Government will review the environmental
and economic case for coastal shipping, and whether the government should play
a greater role in encouraging modal shift.
97. In line with the commitments in the Clean Air Strategy, the Government will also
publish guidelines to advise ports on how to develop effective and targeted Air Quality
98. The Government has also commissioned a report on Coastal Shipping and Inland Waterway Transport, to better understand the barriers, challenges and market opportunities
of coastal shipping and inland waterways within the current freight landscape. The report will model different scenarios for freight transport in 2050. Dependent on the outcome of this report, and the Call for Evidence on domestic vessels in UK
waters, further research may be necessary
to determine the potential emissions savings from short sea shipping if alternative low or
zero emission fuels are in use.
99. The Clean Maritime Council identified the issue of integration between maritime
energy demand and supply as a significant barrier to zero emissions shipping. The
Council formed the Energy Systems Integration task and finish group bringing
together representatives from outside the Council to consider the subject.
Discussions focussed on the emerging demand scenarios for alternative fuelling in
the Maritime sector. It is expected that there is merit in further discussions at a national
level on the possible pathways to zero emissions, and the necessary infrastructure
to implement them. Government will therefore undertake a study to identify and
support the development of zero emission shipping clusters.
Background - Bunkering of alternative fuels
100. Figure 6 illustrates how landside infrastructure could operate in a future
scenario where vessels operate using zero emissions fuels.
101. The Clean Maritime Council Task and Finish Group on Energy Systems Integration
highlighted the need to consider the challenge of providing infrastructure for
alternative fuel transportation and bunkering around the UK. There are a number of
challenges to bunkering alternative fuels that need to be addressed. Broadly these
fall into three main categories.
● Regulatory: the need for the
development of, and compliance with, new safety regulations for storage of alternative fuels. In
addition, there may be issues associated with planning permission for new bunkering
● Investment: as the upfront capital cost
of providing infrastructure associated with alternative fuels may be substantial
for an individual port
● Market: a need to co-ordinate across
the sector to give ports greater certainty that the ships using its infrastructure will
102. Not all these challenges are unique to the maritime sector. Similar challenges will be
faced across other transport modes and other economic sectors as the UK moves
towards zero emissions. The Government’s forthcoming Energy White Paper, due
later this year, will take account of such challenges across economic sectors.
The investment challenges must also be considered in future work considering
economic incentives for the sector (see ‘Economics’ above).
103. A systems approach to the development of alternative shipping fuel bunkering –
whereby maritime needs are integrated within a wider, cross-economy picture of
alternative fuelling demand and supply – may help reduce costs and maximise
opportunities by aligning signals for investment across various market actors.
104. With this multi-sector approach, it will be possible to identify regional and UK wide
areas of specific advantage. There are already projects working on this basis – for
instance the case study below outlines the potential for hydrogen production from wind
power, and the specific regional advantage this poses to areas of the UK.
105. To assist in the development of a systems approach to the development of alternative
fuel bunkering in the UK, the Government in conjunction with the Clean Maritime Council
will undertake a study on zero emission shipping clusters. This study will
include a detailed assessment of the infrastructure required to enable the uptake of
alternative fuelled vessels. This will include consideration of the refuelling requirements
of vessels, as well as whether there are particular geographic locations suitable for
the production, storage and distribution of alternative fuels for shipping including
any dependencies or synergies with other economic sectors such as heating or other
transport modes. The study will consider the issues of sustainability of alternative
fuel production, noting where clusters have particular advantages in producing
fuels with the greatest emission reduction potential (e.g. CCUS opportunities and
renewable energy availability). It will also take into account opportunities as well
as safety and cost challenges related to, integration with the wider energy system
and work ongoing to decarbonise the wider freight system (e.g. with regards to
106. Table 2 below, for instance, sets out interesting potential hotspots in the UK for
clean maritime fuel generation, storage or distribution. It is by no means exhaustive, and
many other locations in the UK are expected to have relevant clusters of experience,
demand and supply advantages.
107. The Clean Maritime Council will establish
a working group to help guide this study, which will be fed into national strategic
cross-Government work, for instance, related to the Energy White Paper
108. Electrification in the maritime sector may
take the form of:
● Shore-side power (powering vessels’
auxiliary systems for vessels at berth, also referred to as cold-ironing)
● Hybrid electric vessels (the use of electric
motors & batteries to complement other energy sources such as diesel engines)
● Fully electric vessels (the use of
motors & batteries)
Electric charging for port operations (e.g. powering non-road mobile machinery
such as cranes).
109. Research commissioned by the Government estimates that alternative fuels
will play the most significant role in reducing emissions from UK shipping, with electric
propulsion playing a smaller role relatively . In particular, this research suggests that
electric propulsion options may be focused predominantly on smaller vessels that
operate on shorter routes, such as ferry crossings. However, these conclusions are
sensitive to several assumptions about, for instance, the capital costs of
110. Despite alternative fuels being expected to play a more significant role, research
commissioned by the Government estimates that UK ports are still likely to see total electricity demand increase
significantly by 2050 . Without any further policy intervention, this research estimates
that the total annual electricity demand at UK ports could rise from 20 GWh in 2016
to around 250 GWh by around 2050, largely driven by the demand for shore-power from container vessels. In contrast,
under a scenario in which there are very ambitious assumptions about maritime
electrification, this research estimates that annual electrical demand at
UK major ports could rise to over 4000 GWh by around 2050, predominantly be driven by demand
for electric propulsion, but with demand for shore-side power also expected to increase
111. This research explains that a significant increase in electricity demand in ports
would require ports to invest in charging infrastructure and potentially to apply for
increased capacity from the electricity network. The scale of connection
required to a port will be influenced by the forecasted peak load (maximum energy
demand within a certain timeframe that needs to be accommodated) . For an
illustration of potential scales of peak total demand, the research estimates that
the potential peak load could range from around 9 MW for a small port to around 79
MW for a large port80.
112. As demand for electrification is expected to be driven by particular vessel types,
demand for electrical capacity in ports is not expected to be uniform across the UK’s
113. The research also explored the barriers to port electrification and identified the
following potential barriers:
● split incentives to invest and coordination failures between ports and the
● imperfect information on abatement options;
● existing infrastructure and onboard technologies;
● the cost of capital; and ● regulatory constraints.
114. Consultation indicates that, in particular, constraints on existing local network
capacity may be particularly challenging.
115. Given the potential role of port electrification for zero emissions shipping, further
research on routes to overcoming these barriers will be included in the study
undertaken by Government in partnership with the Clean Maritime Council on zero
emission shipping clusters. The results of this study will be fed into national strategic
cross-Government work, for instance, related to the Energy White Paper. Public procurement, subsidy
and licensing regimes
116. The Government’s Maritime 2050 Strategy contained the following commitment:
● Government will consider how public
procurement, subsidy and licensing regimes can be used to increase the uptake of green
technologies e.g. for vessels supporting the offshore energy sectors.
117. The publicly-owned civilian fleet is very small, and is largely comprised
of highly specialised vessels. Environmental performance is a key part of the assessment criteria during fleet
replacement. Over the coming years, Government will continue to ensure that the
fleet renewal process takes into account opportunities to embed the reduction
of emissions of GHGs and air quality pollutants from new vessels.
118. Besides the publicly owned fleet, certain segments of the UK maritime fleet
may have certain characteristics which may allow for faster or more extensive
reductions in emissions. Vessels associated with the UK’s offshore energy sector
may be of particular interest. Activities supporting the offshore oil & gas sector
tend to be clustered, with a particularly strong cluster of support vessels
based out of Aberdeen.
119. The UK also has the world’s largest installed capacity of offshore
wind. The construction,
operation and decommissioning of these installations involves a substantial volume
of vessel traffic. This activity is expected to increase as, under the recent agreement
of an offshore wind sector deal, this capacity is expected to grow to 30 GW of installed
capacity by 2030. The sector itself has launched an initiative aiming to reduce
emissions from its support vessels (see case study: Offshore Wind Accelerator
Vessel Decarbonisation Programme), including consideration of electric charging
of vessels direct from offshore wind turbines.
120. The potential infrastructure development opportunities associated with geographic
aggregations of this offshore energy activity will be considered as part of the study
undertaken into zero-emission shipping clusters (see above). Synergies with the
offshore renewable energy industry will also be taken into account in this study. This
may include, for instance, consideration of novel ideas such as the future potential for
offshore synthetic-fuel generation fuelled by offshore wind generation alongside the
use of empty gas reservoirs, platforms and pipelines for distribution .
SECTION 5 INNOVATION
121. The Government’s Maritime 2050 Strategy contained the following commitments:
●● Government will seek to ensure that
measures which tackle the UK’s maritime emissions are considered for national grants set
aside for dealing with environmental issues.
●● Government will consider options to
support the development of technology which enables monitoring and enforcement of any
new regulations governing emissions of GHGs and air quality pollutants.
●● In line with proposals in the UK Clean
Air Strategy, the government has now established the Clean Maritime Council,
working closely with research bodies like MarRI-UK to ensure strong collaboration
between government, industry and academia in this field. Over the next year
government will consider the potential role for the Council in directing funding
into green technologies for shipping.
122. Research commissioned by the Government has identified a range of key
barriers to the commercial deployment of emission reduction options .
123. On top of these challenges, the maritime sector faces particular hurdles related to
research and innovation (R&I) spending. Consultation suggests that compared
to similar sectors, the global maritime sector invests less of its revenues on
R&I activities . Reasons for this relative underspend may be multifaceted. They
may include, for instance, the global nature of the sector, its relative
maturity and the issue of ‘split incentives’ .
124. However, it is clear that significant levels of investment in innovation will be required to
trigger the scale of emissions reductions required to comply with the challenging
international policy objectives on reduction of GHGs and air quality pollutants. To
stimulate and support this innovation, there is a need for:
● Increased cross-sectoral co-ordination of maritime R&D activities
● Improved information-sharing and
transparency around performance of innovative new technologies
125. A nationally co-ordinated approach will
be particularly important if the UK is to capitalise on the opening of emerging
markets in clean maritime technology. To bolster this approach, we will contribute
seed funding to the establishment of MarRI-UK, as well as providing grant
funding for innovation calls. In addition, we will establish a Clean Maritime Award to
celebrate leaders in the field of emissions reductions.
126. As set out in Maritime 2050, research organisations such as MarRI-UK89 can play
an important role in acting as a hub to coordinate research and innovation activities
in the field of zero emission shipping.
127. Government will help to co-ordinate research across the variety of public
and private actors in the field of zero emission shipping e.g. MarRI-UK, Energy
Technologies Institute, UK Research & Innovation, Catapults, The Carbon Trust.
The Clean Maritime Council will engage closely with research organisations,
such as MarRI-UK, to ensure strong collaboration between Government, industry and academia. This will be aimed
at encouraging innovation (and, where possible trials or demonstrations) across a
spectrum of emissions abatement options (both on board and landside) to enable lowcost movement along the pathway to zero
128. In addition, Government will support the establishment of MarRI-UK and its workstream around clean maritime activities. The intention of this workstream would be to initially support zero emission projects generally in the early (3 – 7)
TRL stages. Where possible, these projects
would be aligned with technologies in which the UK has been identified as having a competitive advantage. Research commissioned by the Government90 assessed the UK’s competitiveness in11 key clean maritime technologies and found that the UK has the strongest competitive advantage in hydrogen and ammonia production technologies, onboard batteries and electric engines. This
latter area may be a particularly interesting for investment since a number of the lowand zero-emission shipping technologies (battery, fuel-cell, hybrid-electric) rely upon electric propulsion.
129. The Government will also support clean maritime projects through its Transport
Technology Research Innovation Grant (T-TRIG) programme. T-TRIG provides
seed funding to early-stage science, engineering or technology innovations that
have the potential to advance the UK’s transport system. T-TRIG is open to any
UK organisation, typically micro, small and medium-sized businesses or academia
to support research projects which could lead to the development of successful new
transport products, processes or services.
SECTION 6 - REGULATION
130. The Maritime 2050 Strategy made the following commitment:
● Government will consider options to
promote the UK flag as the flag of first choice for vessels adopting low or zero
131. Currently all new vessels are subject to international safety regulations. All ships
using low-flashpoint fuels91 must conform to the International Code of Safety for Ships
Using Gases or Other Low-Flashpoint Fuels (IGF Code)92. This code contains mandatory
safety provisions for the arrangement, installation, control and monitoring of
machinery, equipment and systems using low-flashpoint fuels. The current IGF Code
contains detailed requirements for natural gas as a fuel, while other low-flashpoint
fuels, including hydrogen, can be approved based on alternative design arrangements.
132. Following the ‘alternative design’ process of the current IGF code requires each ship
design to go through an individual process, which must be approved by the vessel’s
flag state for operation, adding time, cost and risk to certification.
133. As one of the leading global flag nations, there is a clear opportunity for the UK
ship register to attract innovators in clean technology for shipping if membership of
the flag gave access to regulatory support to assist the vessel operator through the
alternative design process.
134. A sub-group of the Clean Maritime Council focused on Standards and Regulations
examined the role of government regulations in encouraging the development
and deployment of zero emission vessels. The group concluded that a significant
regulatory barrier is the time required and the complexity involved in working through
the alternative design process. As such this section is focused on regulatory barriers as
they relate to safety and ship standards. There are a number of other regulations
which have a bearing on the uptake of zero emission shipping, including, for instance,
regulations relating to energy networks and planning permission. Considerations
relating to these issues are discussed in the infrastructure section of this document.
135. While future amendments to the IGF Code may be necessary, until more is known
about the use of alternative fuels, it would be impractical to create prescriptive safety
regulations for these fuels. There is also a danger that a prescriptive code may inhibit
innovation if implemented before a fuel or technology is available commercially. The
UK would support future amendments to the IGF Code once fuels are sufficiently
matured. Government will also work to ensure that the UK plays a role in global
standard development for electrification.
136. Government is committed to supporting innovators in the field of clean maritime
technology. In order to mitigate this potential regulatory barrier, Government will establish
he Maritime Emissions Regulation Advisory Service (MERAS) by 2020. Supported by
the Maritime and Coastguard Agency, MERAS will be able to provide dedicated support to
innovators using zero emission propulsion technologies, assisting them through the
‘alternative design’ certification process. This will reduce the time, cost and risk associated
with certifying vessels using zero emission propulsion technologies.
137. In ‘Technology and Innovation in UK Maritime: the Case of Autonomy’93,
published in January 2019 alongside Maritime 2050, Government committed to launching a Maritime Autonomy
Regulation lab (MARLab)94. MARLab supports maritime innovation in the UK,
helping to create an environment which attracts international companies to invest
and test autonomous technologies here. The work of MARLab will then be used to
develop a domestic regulatory framework for maritime autonomy, allowing the UK to
lead negotiations at the IMO to establish international regulations for maritime
autonomy. Although regulatory needs for zero emissions technology differ from the
requirements for maritime autonomy, there are clear synergies between the work
MARLab has already begun, and the future role of MERAS. It is vital to ensure that
the two bodies learn from each other, and support industry in tandem.
138. MERAS has the potential to be beneficial for the UK economy, helping to make the
UK a destination choice for developers and testers of zero emission fuels and
technologies. The support and expertise of MERAS may prove attractive to UK flagged
ships, encouraging them to transition to zero emission shipping and with this unique
offering, increasing the number of ship owners who choose to register their vessels
under the UK flag.
SECTION 7 - NEXT STEPS
139. The Clean Maritime Plan is a route-map to zero emission shipping for the UK, but
it is not the final step in supporting this work. It is clear that collaboration between
Government and industry is key to ensuring that the UK builds on its unique maritime
heritage, and remains a world leading maritime economy. The zero emissions
ambitions outlined at the beginning of this plan highlight that the transition is wide
reaching, and will require commitment well into the year 2050. But the actions taken
now are vital in helping to reach this goal.
140. In just the next two years, Government will deliver on the following commitments:
Before the end of 2019:
● The Clean Maritime Council will continue
to meet, supporting implementation of the Clean Maritime Plan.
● In September 2019, at London International Shipping week, announce a
Green Finance/Financing Green initiative for shipping.
● Support the establishment of MarRI-UK, and contribute funding towards its work
on clean maritime innovation.
● Issue a public consultation on the further use of Emissions Control Areas to
improve UK air quality
● Issue a call for evidence directed at UK domestic shipping seeking information
on emissions from the sector and possible approaches to mitigate them
● Issue guidance to support major English ports in producing Air Quality Plans.
● Government will consult on a possible maritime amendment to the Renewable
Transport Fuel Obligation
● Government will undertake a study to identify and support potential UK zero
emission shipping clusters.
● The Government will establish the Maritime Emissions Regulation Advisory
● Act appropriately on the results of the Call for Evidence on Domestic Shipping
and the ECA consultation
● Continue leading internationally to deliver the objectives of the IMO GHG Strategy
to cut GHG emissions from international shipping by at least by 50% 2050.
MAP - THE 2050 PLAN RECOMMENDATIONS
1 Existing Clean Air Strategy commitments Section 4 – Infrastructure
2 Government will review the existing legislative framework, including the provision of primary powers, to ensure that the
UK has the flexibility to respond to public concerns in relation to pollution from the maritime sector. Section 4 – Infrastructure
3 Government will consider options to promote the UK flag as the flag of first choice for vessels adopting low or zero
emission technologies. Section 3 – Economics Section 6 – Regulation
4 Government will consider options to increase the registration of domestic vessels operating in the UK, as a means to improving
our ability to regulate emissions from this sector.
5 In parallel with increased international reporting through the IMO Data Collection System and EU Monitoring, Reporting and
Verification Regulations, the government will consider domestic options to increase the transparency of emissions data from the
maritime sector. Section 3 – Economics
6 Government will assess how economic instruments could support the transition to zero emission shipping in the medium to long
term. Section 3 – Economics
7 In line with proposals in the UK Clean Air Strategy, the government has now established the Clean Maritime Council,
working closely with research bodies like MarRI-UK to ensure strong collaboration between government, industry and academia
in this field. Over the next year government will consider the potential role for the Council in directing funding into green
technologies for shipping. Section 5 – Innovation
8 Government will work to better understand the capacity of the UK’s energy networks to support an increase in demand for green
energy from our ports and shipping sectors. It will also consider the role the maritime and offshore renewables sectors can play in
decentralised energy generation. Section 4 – Infrastructure
9 Government will seek to ensure that measures which tackle the UK’s maritime emissions are considered for national grants set
aside for dealing with environmental issues. Section 5 – Innovation.
10 Government will consider options to support the development of technology which enables monitoring and enforcement of any
new regulations governing emissions of GHGs and air quality pollutants. Section 5 – Innovation
11 Government will consider the merits of introducing a medium term target for emissions of GHGs and air quality pollutants from
UK shipping. Further detail on this consideration will be set out in the Clean Maritime Plan. Section 3 – Economics
12 Government will work in partnership with the British banking sector to encourage the provision of finance towards zero
emission shipping technology development and manufacturing. Section 3 – Economics
13 Government will review the environmental and economic case for coastal shipping, and whether the government should play a
greater role in encouraging modal shift. Section 4 – Infrastructure
14 In line with the Industrial Strategy, government aims to launch a number of “zero-emission shipping
ambitions” in the Clean Maritime Plan which could include:
- A group of hydrogen or ammonia powered domestic vessels in operation
- At least one major port in the UK to have all ship-side activity zero emission (including non-road mobile
machinery like cranes, as well as ships while docked in port). Section 3 – Economics
15 Government will work to ensure maritime greenhouse gas emissions are appropriately taken into account in national and
international emission reporting. The government will carefully consider to the CCC’s advice on the inclusion of international
shipping within carbon budgets. Further information on the Government’s plans will be set out in the Clean Maritime Plan. Section 3 – Economics
16 Government will consider whether and how the Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO) could be used to encourage
the uptake of low carbon fuels in maritime, taking the availability of sustainable resources, competing uses and the
international character of the maritime sector into consideration. Section 3 – Economics
17 Government will consider how public procurement, subsidy and
licensing regimes can be used to increase the uptake of green technologies e.g. for vessels supporting the offshore energy
sectors. Section 4 – Infrastructure
18 Government will consider the introduction of a target to reduce
emissions of GHGs and air quality pollutants from UK shipping towards zero. Further details on the government’s long term plans
to reduce emissions from UK shipping, will be set out in the Clean Maritime Plan, taking into account the IMO’s 2050 GHG target.
Section 3 – Economics
19 In line with the government’s Industrial Strategy, we aspire to
launch a number of “zero-emission shipping ambitions” in the Clean Maritime Plan including an aim to have all domestic ferries
zero emission by 2050.
The Department for Transport
UK, part of UK Research and Innovation Clean Maritime Plan and supports the transition to Net Zero by
2050 in line with the International
Maritime Organization's (IMO's)
targets for zero emission shipping.
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