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The Autonomous AI solar and wind powered ship Elizabeth Swann


FLOTATION & DISPLACEMENT - Water is the staff of life, without which humans could not survive on planet earth. Seawater covers roughly 70% of the earth's surface, but is not drinkable, being saturated with salt.





H2O is a clear liquid that we take for granted, that falls from the sky to water our plants and trees. We sometimes think of it as a nuisance, where our houses and factories need roofs to keep us warm and dry.


But we crave it to quench our thirst. Why?


Because the human body is mostly water. According to H.H. Mitchell, Journal of Biological Chemistry, the brain and heart are composed of 73% water, the lungs are about 83% water, skin contains 64% water, muscles and kidneys are 79%, and even the bones are around 31% water.


No wonder we need it. We all need a reliable water supply for life.


Water is held to be the most powerful solvent on planet earth, explaining why the sea is saturated with salt. 


Fresh water weighs 62lbs per cubic foot (in old money). Seawater weights 64lbs per cubic foot. Two pounds is therefore dissolved salts and minerals.


We can separate water into hydrogen and oxygen via electrolysis, using electrolyzers, to make a gas that is useful for renewable energy supplies. When recombined in a fuel cell, we get our fresh water back, fully recycled.





Water is essential for life on earth



NOTE - Spare a thought for our precious H2O supplies. Please don't contaminate or waste valuable drinking water.


Fresh water weighs about 1000 kilograms per cubic meter and seawater weighs about 1.026 times that, we say that the typical seawater density is 1026 kg/m3.

It depends on how much salt is in it. Fresh water has a density of about a kilogram per liter, or about 3.78 kg (8.33 pounds) per gallon. Seawater has a density of about 1.03 kg/L, or about 8.57 lb/gallon.

The measure of practical salinity was originally developed to provide an approximate measure of the total mass of salt in one kilogram of seawater. Seawater with S equal to 35 contains approximately 35 grams of salt and 965 grams of water, or 35 ppt (35 psu).

Typical ocean salinity is about 3.5% so the liter would weigh around 1,035 grams. Near Kuwait Arabian Gulf is about 4.5% so 1 liter would be about 1,045 grams, assuming 1 liter of water.

So salt (seawater) has a higher density than fresh water. Important when calculating the floatation of boats and ships.






Although the earth is covered by oceans and seas totaling over 70% of the surface of our blue planet, only 1% is drinkable (potable) water.







WATER TANKERS - In some geographical regions, water is more valuable than petrol. All the money in the world, is no use to you if your are dead from dehydration.


Waterborne transport is the most efficient way of getting food and goods from one country to another. 


Rivers are also useful waterways for transporting goods and passengers.


For travel, ships are relatively slow, but ferries are practical and cruises are popular, though at the moment very polluting. The aim of the IMO is to green shipping, to achieve zero emissions by 2050.


At the moment we have a very confusing situation, where, although fleet operators are keen to transition from particulate/carcinogenic laden diesel and LNG bunker fuels, to renewable energy, there is no cut and dried solution. With many different systems up for development, to include:


1. Hydrogen gas in compressed form H2

2. Hydrogen gas in liquid form LH2

3. Methanol CH3OH

4. Ammonia NH3


The Cleaner Ocean Foundation (COF) is keen to explore the possibilities, with a view to equaling the diesel powered circumnavigation record set by the Cable and Wireless Adventurer - and eventually take of the formula one sailing multi-hulls that have competed for the Jules Verne (sailing) Trophy. Thus, proving the viability of energy from nature systems - as are not yet fully developed - for commercial transport. The technology is there for the asking. 






RISING SEA LEVELS - The melting on arctic ice caused by global warming, is raising sea levels, causing many islanders to be homeless. All United Nations members know that use of coal and oil fossil fuels is the root cause of climate change, but so far, such ecocidal mechanisms have not been outlawed under the Rome Statute. For those affected by flooding, there is too much water, but all of it unfit for drinking.






The water cycle is often taught as a simple circular cycle of evaporation, condensation, and precipitation. Although this can be a useful model, the reality is much more complicated. The paths and influences of water through Earth’s ecosystems are extremely complex and, even today, not completely understood. COF is striving to expand understanding of the water cycle at global and local scales to help others forecast weather, climate, water resources, and ecosystem health.


Earth is truly unique in its abundance of water. Water is necessary to sustaining life on Earth, and helps tie together the Earth's lands, oceans, and atmosphere into an integrated system. Precipitation, evaporation, freezing and melting and condensation are all part of the hydrological cycle - a never-ending global process of water circulation from clouds to land, to the ocean, and back to the clouds. This cycling of water is intimately linked with energy exchanges among the atmosphere, ocean, and land that determine the Earth's climate and cause much of natural climate variability. The impacts of climate change and variability on the quality of human life occur primarily through changes in the water cycle. As stated in the National Research Council's report on Research Pathways for the Next Decade (NRC, 1999): "Water is at the heart of both the causes and effects of climate change."


The ocean plays a key role in this vital cycle of water. The ocean holds 97% of the total water on the planet; 78% of global precipitation occurs over the ocean, and it is the source of 86% of global evaporation. Besides affecting the amount of atmospheric water vapor and hence rainfall, evaporation from the sea surface is important in the movement of heat in the climate system. Water evaporates from the surface of the ocean, mostly in warm, cloud-free subtropical seas. This cools the surface of the ocean, and the large amount of heat absorbed the ocean partially buffers the glass-house effect from increasing carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. Water vapor carried by the atmosphere condenses as clouds and falls as rain, far from where it evaporated, Condensing water vapor releases latent heat and this drives much of the the atmospheric circulation in the tropics. This latent heat release is an important part of the Earth’s heat balance, and it couples the planet’s energy and water cycles.

The major physical components of the global water cycle include the evaporation from the ocean and land surfaces, the transport of water vapor by the atmosphere, precipitation onto the ocean and land surfaces, the net atmospheric transport of water from land areas to ocean, and the return flow of fresh water from the land back into the ocean. The additional components of oceanic water transport are few, including the mixing of fresh water through the oceanic boundary layer, transport by ocean currents, and sea ice processes. On land the situation is considerably more complex, and includes the deposition of rain and snow on land; water flow in runoff; infiltration of water into the soil and groundwater; storage of water in soil, lakes and streams, and groundwater; polar and glacial ice; and use of water in vegetation and human activities. Illustration of the water cycle showing the ocean, land, mountains, and rivers returning to the ocean. Processes labeled include: precipitation, condensation, evaporation, evapor-transpiration (from tree into atmosphere), radiative exchange, surface runoff, ground water and stream flow, infiltration, percolation and soil moisture.

The ocean surface is constantly being stirred up by wind and changes in density or buoyancy. The ocean naturally has different physical characteristics with depth. As depth increases, temperature decreases because the sun only heats surface waters. Warm water is lighter or more buoyant than cold water, so the warm surface water stays near the surface. However, surface water is also subject to evaporation. When seawater evaporates, water is removed, salt remains, and relatively salty water is left behind. This relatively salty water can float at the surface; for example, in the tropics it floats because is it so warm and buoyant.

At higher latitudes, sea water tends to be salty because of pole-ward transport of tropical water and to a lesser extent, sea ice formation. When sea ice forms, the salt is not crystallized in the ice, leaving the remaining waters relatively salty. Also, near the poles, the seawater is cold and dense. The interaction between water temperature and salinity effects density and density determines thermohaline circulation, or the global conveyor belt. The global conveyor belt is a global-scale circulation process that occurs over a century-long time scale. Water sinks in the North Atlantic, traveling south around Africa, rising in the Indian Ocean or further on in the Pacific, then returning toward the Atlantic on the surface only to sink again in the North Atlantic starting the cycle again.

Generalized model of the thermohaline circulation: 'Global Conveyor Belt' This illustration shows cold deep high salinity currents circulating from the north Atlantic Ocean to the southern Atlantic Ocean and east to the Indian Ocean. Deep water returns to the surface in the Indian and Pacific Oceans through the process of upwelling. The warm shallow current then returns west past the Indian Ocean, round South Africa and up to the North Atlantic where the water becomes saltier and colder and sinks starting the process all over again.




Water influences the intensity of climate variability and change. It is the key part of extreme events such as drought and floods. Its abundance and timely delivery are critical for meeting the needs of society and ecosystems.

Humans use water for drinking, industrial applications, irrigating agriculture, hydropower, waste disposal, and recreation. It is important that water sources are protected both for human uses and ecosystem health. In many areas, water supplies are being depleted because of population growth, pollution, and development. These stresses have been made worse by climate variations and changes that affect the hydrologic cycle.

Climate change is affecting where, when, and how much water is available. Extreme weather events such as droughts and heavy precipitation, which are expected to increase as climate changes, can impact water resources. A lack of adequate water supplies, flooding, or degraded water quality impacts civilization — now and throughout history. These challenges can affect the economy, energy production and use, human health, transportation, agriculture, national security, food insecurity, energy security, natural ecosystems, and recreation.












Elizabeth Swann



ZEWT ALORS - The solar and wind powered 'Elizabeth Swann' will feature solar collectors and wind energy harvesting apparatus in an advanced configuration. Her hull configuration is ideal for mass hydrogen storage tanks, offering ranges of up to 4,000nm.






A central wave piercing hull stabilized by outriggers as a trimaran including:


a) Ultra light superstructure purposed designed to harvest energy from nature via b) and c) below,


b) Solar wings that track the sun and fold for storms, in concert with


c) A turbine generator on a mast that tracks wind conditions and furls for storms.


- Hull drag estimates

- Interior design

- Propulsion

- Weight analysis


The theoretical displacement we are working towards is: 30,000 - 45,000 kilograms (target) in 5083 marine grade alloy.
































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