ZEWT - HORIZON-CL5-2021-D5-01-14


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Feasibility of a large cleam ammonia marine engine ZEWT partnership



The unique design of the Elizabeth Swann lends itself to the onboard storage of hydrogen, as a range extender for ferries, or for blue water ocean operations, where mass storage is a requirement to give operational ranges of up to 4,000 nautical miles. Theoretically, liquid ammonia, could improve on the hydrogen range, should it become a practical alternative.







Type of Action: Innovation Action (IA)

TRL: 6-7
Expected EU contribution per project (M€) = €10m
Number of projects to be funded = 10 @ €1 million
ZEWT Partnership – Zero Emission Waterborne Transport


Project outputs and results are expected to contribute concretely to the following expected outcomes as marked (“*”) whilst supporting the overall medium and longer term objectives:

- Contribution to at least one full scale demonstrator with the ammonia-fuelled marine engine used in a commercial vessel for main propulsion and/or (large scale) main power generation by 2027.


- In the medium term, enabling operations for maritime intercontinental transport (tankers, bulk carriers, container ships, passenger ships) and realisation of bunkering infrastructures, depending on fuel availability scenarios.


- Enable the timely transformation of the existing maritime fleet towards climate neutrality through retrofitting of existing vessels with ammonia-fuelled engines.


*Demonstration and validation of an ammonia-fuelled marine engine with power output in the +10 MW range. The validation shows safe and reliable operation in realistic scenarios and for a range of load cases.


*In case of proven feasibility pathways to the uptake of ammonia as a marine fuel for deep sea shipping and high power vessels are set out.


*Analysis of pathways to ammonia as a marine fuel through the establishment of regulations and solutions for health and safety issues.




Deep sea shipping (maritime intercontinental transport) and ship operations with very high power demand require the storage of large amounts of energy carriers aboard in order to ensure the required autonomy and the ability to navigate safely in adverse and extreme conditions. The use of low energy density green fuels will in these operational environments lead to a significant loss of cargo volumes or useable space (e.g. passenger cabins) which directly impacts the economic parameters of the vessels and consequently leads to reluctance by ship owners to invest in clean ships.

Ammonia is a zero carbon fuel, with a (slightly) higher volumetric energy density than liquid hydrogen and with comparatively high liquefaction temperatures and pressures. Due to this, and its combustion characteristics, green ammonia has been widely advocated as a potential sustainable alternative marine fuel. Yet its possible use within a large low-speed marine engine has yet to be proven. A practical and easy use of ammonia may be a game changer in making shipping climate neutral, in particular if it can be used in the existing fleet through retrofitting.

The aim is to develop, demonstrate and validate a multi-cylinder internal combustion engine of at least 10 MW power output running on ammonia as its main fuel, with IMO-Tier III or lower NOx emissions and negligible emissions of SOx, particulates and other harmful substances or odours. As an indication total tank-to-wake GHG emission reduction versus an MGO baseline should be at least 80% (taking into account that the climate-neutral upstream supply of ammonia is not part of this topic). Risks should be assessed and the engine should also comply with all relevant safety rules and regulations as stipulated by classification societies and flag states.

Projects should demonstrate the engine operating at its rated power in a laboratory or on board of an actual vessel, thus going beyond the state of the art which is currently demonstrating ammonia combustion in smaller (road vehicle-based) test engines, or rapid compression machines.

Assuming feasibility, pathways toward deployment will be proposed.

This topic implements the co-programmed European Partnership on ‘Zero Emission Waterborne Transport’ (ZEWT).

This topic implements the co-programmed European Partnership on ‘Zero Emission Waterborne Transport’ (ZEWT).

Specific Topic Conditions:


Activities are expected to achieve TRL 6-7 by the end of the project – see General Annex B.

Cross-cutting Priorities:

Co-programmed European Partnerships
Ocean sustainability and blue economy


This Destination addresses activities that improve the climate and environmental footprint, as well as competitiveness, of different transport modes.

The transport sector is responsible for 23% of CO2 emissions and remains dependent on oil for 92% of its energy demand. While there has been significant technological progress over past decades, projected GHG emissions are not in line with the objectives of the Paris Agreement due to the expected increase in transport demand. Intensified research and innovation activities are therefore needed, across all transport modes and in line with societal needs and preferences, in order for the EU to reach its policy goals towards a net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 and to reduce significantly air pollutants.

The areas of rail and air traffic management will be addressed through dedicated Institutional European Partnerships and are therefore not included in this document.

This Destination contributes to the following Strategic Plan’s Key Strategic Orientations (KSO):

C: Making Europe the first digitally enabled circular, climate-neutral and sustainable economy through the transformation of its mobility, energy, construction and production systems;

A: Promoting an open strategic autonomy [[‘Open strategic autonomy’ refers to the term ‘strategic autonomy while preserving an open economy’, as reflected in the conclusions of the European Council 1 – 2 October 2020.]] by leading the development of key digital, enabling and emerging technologies, sectors and value chains to accelerate and steer the digital and green transitions through human-centred technologies and innovations.


Industrial leadership in key and emerging technologies that work for people;


Smart and sustainable transport.

The expected impact, in line with the Strategic Plan, is to contribute “Towards climate-neutral and environmental friendly mobility through clean solutions across all transport modes while increasing global competitiveness of the EU transport sector", notably through:

Transforming road transport to zero-emission mobility through a world-class European research and innovation and industrial system, ensuring that Europe remains world leader in innovation, production and services in relation to road transport.

Accelerating the reduction of all aviation impacts and emissions (CO2 and non-CO2, including manufacturing and end-of-life, noise), developing aircraft technologies for deep reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and maintaining European aero-industry’s global leadership position.

Accelerate the development and prepare the deployment of climate neutral and clean solutions in the shipping sector, reduce its environmental impact (on biodiversity, noise, pollution and waste management), improve its system efficiency, leverage digital and EU satellite-navigation solutions and contribute to the competitiveness of the European waterborne sector.

Devising more effective ways for reducing emissions and their impacts through improved scientific knowledge.







The European Green Deal refers to the need to achieve clean, climate neutral shipping and waterborne operations and to the importance of research and innovation in this respect. Waterborne transport, in particular where large sea-going vessels are used, remains an important emitter of GHG and the sector needs to step up its efforts on a significant scale and through a wide range of measures. Within the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) global agreement was reached in 2018 to cut total shipping GHG emissions by at least 50% by 2050 compared to 2008 (baseline). The EU considers this too timid and is committed to a much higher level of ambition. By the same date the Union aims to cut all transport emissions by at least 90%.

Even though the share of Inland Waterway Transport with regard to global GHG emissions is of minor importance the Central Commission for the Navigation of the Rhine (CCNR) and its Member States take various steps to reduce the GHG emissions of the fleet. In 2018 the Mannheim Declaration was adopted which incorporates the EU GHG reducing targets for inland navigation and these efforts are supported through this work programme.

To provide the innovations needed to achieve the targets and show global leadership (also in pushing far more ambitious global regulatory standards) a new co-programmed European Partnership “Zero Emission Waterborne Transport” (ZEWT) will mobilise resources and leverage private and public investments towards the central objective of demonstrating by 2030 the deployable solutions needed for all main types of waterborne transport to become “net zero emission” by 2050 at the latest. Most topics on waterborne transport will contribute to the implementation of this partnership. Projects under ZEWT partnership topics are expected to provide up to two presentations on progress made to the ZEWT partnership members, also with the aim to support the monitoring of the ZEWT partnership performance as well the necessary underlying development to make these achievements possible within the time frame of the partnership.

Furthermore, in the context of the EU’s digital strategy “A Europe Fit for the Digital Age” the waterborne transport sector will have to embrace a wide-ranging digitalisation, resulting in new business patterns, smart ports, automation of shipping and cargo handling (which will provide higher efficiency and significantly safer operations), autonomous vessels, and new design and decision tools.

Topics on waterborne transport under this Destination of the cluster 5 work programme address climate neutrality and protection of the marine environment, digitalisation, and industrial competitiveness with the aim to support all pertinent EU policy objectives, also with regard to synergies with related programmes like the Connecting Europe Facility and the EU Innovation Fund.

The main impacts to be generated by topics targeting waterborne transport under this Destination are:

Increased and early deployment of climate neutral fuels and significant electrification of shipping, in particular and foremost in intra-European transport connections.


Increased overall energy efficiency and drastically lower fuel consumption of vessels (important in light of more expensive alternative fuels for which the sector will have to compete with other transport modes).


Enable the innovative port infrastructure (bunkering of alternative fuels and provision of electrical power) needed to achieve zero-emission waterborne transport (inland and maritime).


Enable clean, climate-neutral, and climate-resilient inland waterway vessels before 2030 helping a significant market take-up and a comprehensive green fleet renewal which will also help modal shift.


Strong technological and operational momentum towards achieving climate neutrality and the elimination of all harmful pollution to air and water.


Achieve the smart, efficient, secure and safe integration of maritime and inland shipping into logistic chains, facilitated by full digitalisation and automation.


Enable fully automated shipping (maritime and inland) and efficient connectivity.


Competitive waterborne industries, including the globally active European maritime technology sector, providing the advanced green and digital technologies which will support jobs and growth in Europe.







Transport emissions are one of the main contributors to air quality problems, particularly in urban areas. At the same time, noise also negatively affects health. The World Health Organization (WHO) has classified traffic noise, including road, rail and air traffic, as the second most important cause of ill health in Western Europe, behind only air pollution caused by very fine particulate matter. Transport noise, particularly from road traffic, but also from rail and aviation, is a major contributor to noise pollution in urban areas. While type-approval noise limits for road vehicles, including their tyres, have been tightened over the years, the overall exposure to noise generated by road vehicles has not improved mainly due to increasing traffic volumes. L category vehicles are often perceived as a significant contributors to noise pollution and this might be due to the fact that noise emissions seem to be strictly optimised for specific conditions (but also due to tampering by their users, which in some cases is made too easy by the way the vehicles are built).

Electrification promises to address most of these issues, but as some transport modes are more difficult to electrify in the near future, there is need for research and innovation activities to develop appropriate and environmentally sustainable solutions. Furthermore, possible new pollutants and related health- challenges need to be monitored and investigated, and ways to deal with emissions by the existing fleet need to be studied and demonstrated.

The main impacts to be generated by topics targeting transport-related health and environmental issues under this Destination are:

- The better monitoring of the environmental performance and enforcement of regulation (detection of defeat devices, tampered anti-pollution systems, etc.) of fleets of transport vehicles, be it on road, airports and ports.

- Substantially reduce the overall environmental impact of transport (e.g.: as regards biodiversity, noise, pollution and waste)








General conditions

1. Admissibility conditions: described in Annex A and Annex E of the Horizon Europe Work Programme General Annexes

The page limit of the application is 70 pages.

Proposal page limits and layout: described in Part B of the Application Form available in the Submission System

2. Eligible countries: described in Annex B of the Work Programme General Annexes

A number of non-EU/non-Associated Countries that are not automatically eligible for funding have made specific provisions for making funding available for their participants in Horizon Europe projects. See the information in the Horizon Europe Programme Guide.

3. Other eligibility conditions: described in Annex B of the Work Programme General Annexes

4. Financial and operational capacity and exclusion: described in Annex C of the Work Programme General Annexes

5. Evaluation and award:

Award criteria, scoring and thresholds are described in Annex D of the Work Programme General Annexes

Submission and evaluation processes are described in Annex F of the Work Programme General Annexes and the Online Manual

Indicative timeline for evaluation and grant agreement: described in Annex F of the Work Programme General Annexes

6. Legal and financial set-up of the grants: described in Annex G of the Work Programme General Annexes

The funding rate is up to 60% of the eligible costs. This funding rate applies both to members and non-members of the partnership, except for non-profit legal entities, where the funding rate is up to 100% of the total eligible costs.

Specific conditions

7. Specific conditions: described in the specific topic of the Work Programme


Call documents:

Standard application form — call-specific application form is available in the Submission System

The standard application form can be found in the link below, but be cautious that for this Call topic, the limit of 70 pages applies.

Standard application form (HE RIA, IA)

Standard evaluation form — will be used with the necessary adaptations

Standard evaluation form (HE RIA, IA)


HE General MGA v1.0







Horizon Europe is the EU's next research and innovation programme starting in 2021, with the Green Deal


HORIZON-CL5-2021-D5-01-07 Enabling the safe and efficient on-board storage and integration within ships of large quantities of ammonia and hydrogen fuels (ZEWT Partnership) IA to TRL 6-7 Budget €20m Around 10m x 2 projects

HORIZON-CL5-2021-D5-01-08 Enabling the full integration of very high power fuel cells in ship design using co-generation and combined cycle solutions for increased efficiency with multiple fuels (ZEWT Partnership) RIA TRL 5 Budget
15 Around 15 projects @ 1m

HORIZON-CL5-2021-D5-01-09 CSA identifying waterborne sustainable fuel deployment scenarios (ZEWT Partnership) CSA
0.50 Around 0.51

HORIZON-CL5-2021-D5-01-10 Innovative on-board energy saving solutions (ZEWT Partnership) RIA 5
20m Around 5m for 4 projects.

HORIZON-CL5-2021-D5-01-11 Hyper powered vessel battery charging system (ZEWT Partnership) IA TRL 6-7
Budget €14m Around 7 projects @ 2m

HORIZON-CL5-2021-D5-01-12 Assessing and preventing methane slip from LNG engines in all conditions within both existing and new vessels (ZEWT Partnership) IA
Budget €7 TRL 7 Around 7 for 1 project

HORIZON-CL5-2021-D5-01-13 Digital Twin models to enable green ship operations (ZEWT Partnership) RIA TRL 5 Budget
7m Around 7 projects A@ 1m per project

HORIZON-CL5-2021-D5-01-14 Proving the feasibility of a large clean ammonia marine engine (ZEWT Partnership) IA TRL 6-7
Budget €10m Around 10 projects @ €1

HORIZON-CL5-2021-D6-01-12 Controlling infection on large passenger ships (19thOctober Deadline) RIA Budget €8 €3-5 for 2 projects (Destination 6)









PUSHING THE BOUNDARIES OF SCIENCE - SOLAR + ROTARY SAIL COMBO: Solar power is a proven means of traversing the oceans, but slowly. We aim to improve the conversion efficiency from sun and wind to propulsive thrust - using a revolutionary hull design. Wind power is also a proven technology, but again, with disadvantages. Sails cannot load-level. A rotary sail (turbine) does so by generating electricity and storing it in the latest batteries, with hydrogen hybrid potential. But do we use vertical or horizontal blades. What setup is the most efficient overall? As an experimental vessel, the design is modular, to allow bolt-on modification to the rig.


We aim to build a visually stunning vessel that is capable of demonstrating ocean clean tech and set a few records into the bargain - to prove the point. The Elizabeth Swann is shown here with a wave piercing hull. She is of trimaran configuration, 44 meters long with active outrigger hulls (or sponsons) that allow the vessel to trim for very efficient running - the first in the world with that feature. She has solar wings that fold for storms and track the sun, and the wind turbine, HAWT or VAWT, can be raised on a mast and furled in high winds, all robotically controlled using hydraulics from Flowfit. This forms a genuine dual-energy harvesting system ideal for workboats and coastal ferries. The Swann features the very latest 'Deep Speed' electric jet drives from 'Sealence' in Italy, and SuperVawt turbine, to show just how silent solar powered yachting can be. We are in the process of sourcing solar panels and lithium batteries.


















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